Dear Mr. Alex Jones, 4/14/2023
I wanted to follow-up on my call and comments to you on your “wildcard” call-in show yesterday (4/13/23) and your follow-up comments / challenges of what you believe are for the view of “Preterism” at minute markers 1:42-45 and then 1:49ff. Let me first address why I called in since I never had time to discuss that, and then I will address your questions and or challenges on Preterism being the correct or incorrect interpretation of the Olivet Discourse and the book of Revelation. By the way, I of course am willing to come on your show to discuss / debate with yourself or a panel of “prophecy experts” you would want to put together to debate the role of modern Israel in Bible prophecy and if the war of Armageddon / Gog and Magog has or has not been fulfilled — and what are the implications of each view in our strategies against the New World Order?
The purpose for my call
I believe we both know that the World Economic Forum / The New World Order / United Nations and their attempted “Globalist Coup D’Etat” of the nations of the world climaxes in them instigating a war between Israel and Iran or the Muslim world (Albert Pike and others have been pretty clear on this). This could happen before the election but if Trump gets re-elected in 2024 this is definitely the ace up the sleeve the New World Order (NWO) and they will pull it out to usher in their Agenda 2030 plan which they hope will bring about their global currency and one world government tyranny. Unfortunately, I don’t believe the Church, nor you are completely prepared to address what is coming. Let me explain.
Since so much of the Church today holds to the heretical view of Premillennial Dispensational Zionism (and you hold to some of these tenants yourself), how do you expect to motivate them to fight the New World Order (NWO) and this coming war between Israel and the Muslim world since they believe the Bible teaches everything is supposed to get worse and worse until they allegedly get “raptured” off the planet just before the war takes place?!? In other words, they WANT this war to take place and the Talmudic Zionists have been infiltrating, grooming and supporting this un-biblical system since C.I. Scofield. They have been manipulating Evangelical Zionists to give them money to “re-build the temple” and to “bless God’s people” so that they in return will be blessed. But of course, as I demonstrate in my book, Armageddon Deception, modern “Jews” are Khazarians and modern Israel isn’t the fulfillment of ANY NT or OT prophecy but is rather nothing more than the State of Rothschild and the New World Order. Thus, they are a growing part of the “invisible world government” so many have talked about over the last 150 years and are no TRUE ally to what a more Christian founding of the U.S. once was. The Rothschild’s were not only trained in international banking but in the Talmud which teaches world dominion through enslaving Christians and non-Jews through monetary means and that killing Christians and non-Jews is an “act of worship.”
But my point is they will be able to pull this war off because Islam WANTS and needs this war to fulfill its version of the Second Coming of Jesus which oddly will help them kill and enslave the Christians and Jews and usher in a worldwide rule under them. And of course Talmudic Zionism needs this war to usher in what many of them think will usher in their military Messiah that will rebuild the temple and usher in a one world government — giving each Jew 2,800 Christian and Gentile slaves. Unfortunately, Evangelical Zionists are no less gullible – twisting the Scriptures and trying to self-fulfill prophecies that were fulfilled between AD 67 – AD 70 to bring about this war so they can get “raptured” and usher in what you (Alex Jones) thinks will be a Premillennial “utopia on earth.” In short, if you don’t take some time to seriously study your Bible Alex, you are no less a SUCKER for what is coming than the three groups I listed and you have no long-term strategy to deal with this threat.
Their GOAL – Monetary and Religious Global “RESET”
The GOAL of the more Satanic or Atheist side of this system is to not just create a monetary vacuum that they will offer as a “solution,” but to bring about disillusionment upon their own Talmudic Zionists and within Islam and Christianity to adopt their new religion of transhumanism / pantheism / nihilism. And when the Jewish Messiah doesn’t show up, the “Man of Sin” doesn’t show up, no version of an Islamic or Christian Second Coming of a 5 foot 5 Jew comes riding on a physical cloud down to save the day and usher in a global “utopia” takes place – religious disillusionment will be at its all-time high!
So, the monetary “great reset” will either be the U.S. and the other nations going back to printing our own debt-free currency and prosecuting these tyrants or rolling over to them for a very long and dark period. And the religious “great reset” will be Christians going back to studying their Bibles to see these are actually prophecies that are not in our near future, but were fulfilled when and how Jesus and the NT authors said they would (i.e. adopting Full Preterism). THEN Christians will be equipped to deal with the disillusionment of many “Jews” and Muslims over their failed prophecies as well. Granted, the history of all three groups is to just re-group and start making more “carrot and stick” “soon” future predictions in hopes of self-fulfilling their prophetic texts, but I do believe after this war (if it takes place as planned) will backfire and be an explosion of revival and reformation in the area of Biblical teaching in the area of Biblical prophecy. And we will see many conversions to Christianity from many “Jews” and Muslims.
Here is an outline to the content of this letter as it pertains to our very brief discussion on air.
1). Is first century Rome, her armies, Nero and Titus mentioned as fulfilling the end of the age war with the Beast of Daniel 7; 9:24-27; 12:7; Luke 21:20-32; Revelation 16; 19-20?
2). “If all prophecy has been fulfilled and the end of the age war was in AD 67 – AD 70 and Titus was the Antichrist, what about:
a). The Devil being in chains?
b). Where is Christ returning to earth?
c). Where are the giant pillars of fire that destroy whole cities?
d). There was no worldwide mark of the beast in which the entire world saw the beast right?
e). Are we really going to say for the last 2,000 years that this is a Christ on earth utopia?”
3). What about the “Man of Sin” and coming of Christ in 2 Thessalonians 1-2?
1). Is first century Rome, her armies, Nero and Titus mentioned as fulfilling the end of the age war with the Beast of Daniel 7; 9:24-27; 12:7; Luke 21:20-32; Revelation 16; 19-20?
Daniel 2 and 7 / Matthew 24 / Luke 21
According to Daniel 2 and 7 the Messiah’s Second Coming on the clouds and establishing His Kingdom would take place during the time of the fourth kingdom which was Rome – and would not occur beyond that time at the end of world history. Daniel 2 identifies His Kingdom as being different than the other earthly kingdoms – it would be eternal and spiritual. Daniel 7 also predicts a time of severe persecution and death for the saints before they would experience Messiah coming on the clouds and inheriting His Kingdom.
Jesus connects Him coming upon the clouds (the Second Coming), severe persecution and death for first century saints, and the arrival of His Kingdom to “ALL” take place within His contemporary AD 30 – AD 70 “this generation” in the Matthew 24 / Mark 13 / Luke 21. Jesus also teaches us that “all” OT prophecy would be fulfilled by AD 70 and thus within His generation (Lk. 21:22-32).
Daniel 9:24-27 / Luke 21
1). Finish transgression
Jerusalem “filled up” or “finished transgressions” against God and His Messiah within Jesus’ “this generation” (Mt. 23:31-38; Dan. 9:24a). As that contemporary generation was ending, the book of Revelation confirms the same first century time frame of fulfillment in that the vindication of the martyrs’ blood at the hands of the great harlot city Babylon (which is OC Jerusalem where the Lord was crucified – Rev. 11:8) would be fulfilled in a “very little while” at the “soon” Second Coming of Christ to vindicate them (Rev. 6:10-11; 17–22:6-7, 10-12, 20).
Peter also affirms that the judgment of the living (e.g. the Pharisees) and the dead (e.g. the martyrs) was “at hand” (1 Pet. 4:5-7).
2). Put an end to sin
As we have seen in our brief discussion of entering into the Sabbath rest in the book of Hebrews, Christ put an “end to sin” at His imminent, “in a very little while,” Second Appearing as the Great Anointed High Priest fulfilling the new covenant promises made to Israel and to close the “last days” of the old covenant age in AD 70 (Heb. 9:26-28/10:37; Rom. 11:26-27/13:11-12; Dan. 9:24b.).
3). To atone for wickedness or the covering over of iniquity
See references in #2. In the new covenant creation, our sins are remembered no more and covered in the depths of the sea (Isa. 65-66; Micah 7:19).
4). To bring in everlasting righteousness
Per Peter, at the Day of the Lord in AD 70, He brought in “everlasting righteousness” or a “world of righteousness” which was to arrive in an AD 70 “at hand” time frame – “the end of all things is at hand” – in Peter’s day (1 Pet. 4:5-7; 2 Pet. 3). This was the “inheritance” and “salvation of the soul” that was “ready to be revealed” to Peter and his contemporaries (1 Pet. 1:4-12; Acts 2:20-40). Paul likewise preached that this righteousness was about to be given to the early Church: “But also, on ours, to whom it [righteousness] is about to be reckoned — to us believing on Him who did raise up Jesus our Lord out of the dead” (Romans 4:24). “For through the Spirit we eagerly await by faith the righteousness for which we hope” (Galatians 5:5).
5). To seal up vision and prophet
Many commentators agree that Daniel 9:24-27 is a tiny snapshot of fulfilling the first and second redemptive comings of Jesus. Yet at the same time, commentators struggle with the fact that the prophecy ends with the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 per Jesus (Lk. 21:20-22, 32). Jesus’ teaching is clear that all of Israel’s OT promises and prophetic material concerning His redemptive work (including His Second Coming) would be accomplished within the AD 30 – AD 70 “this generation” (Luke 21:22-32).
OT scholars Keil and Delitzsch correctly give the meaning of “seal up vision and prophet” to be:
“Prophecies and prophets are sealed, when by the full realization of all prophecies prophecy ceases, no more prophets any more appear.”
6). To anoint the most holy place
Christ anointed and consummated the new covenant Church as His Most Holy Place and Bride in AD 70 (Ex. 20, 29-31, 40; cf. Hebrews 9:6-10; Revelation 11:18-19, 19–
21:16). As David Green writes,
“Finally, it was through the anointing of the Holy Spirit that the whole city of Jerusalem was made new and became “the Tabernacle of God,” when the worldly Holy Place fell in 70 (Heb. 9:1, 8). Under the old covenant, every article of God’s tabernacle was consecrated by the anointing of oil (Ex. 30:2530; 40:9; Lev. 8:10, 12). In the same way, in the Last Days, God taught His elect ones the truth of His gospel through the anointing of the Holy Spirit (2 Cor. 1:21,22; I Jn. 2:20,27), until all of them had come to know Him (Jn. 6:39). Then came “the end” (Dan. 9:26), when the Body of Christ, all His holy ones, the living and the dead, were raised up to become His anointed (God-taught) “Most Holy Place” in the new covenant world (Jn. 6:44-45; Eph. 2:21-22; Heb. 8:11-13; Rev. 21:3).”
The 490 years
The Jews used their own calendar (that was off by 160 years from the Gentile one) and periods of jubilees (49-50 years) to divide prophetic time and the coming fulfillment of Daniel 9:24:24-27. The prophecy was broken down in 10 Jubilee periods – 10 x 49 = 490 years. They saw the prophecy beginning with the destruction of the first temple in roughly 420 BC and ending with the destruction of the temple in AD 70 (420 BC – AD 70 = 490 years). But of course, they won’t tell you that in their early literature they understood Daniel 7:13 and Daniel 9:24-27 to be a Messianic prophecy of a divine and eternal Messiah that had to show up before the destruction of the temple in AD 70 (something I address in my book in much detail).
The War like a Flood – Abomination of Desolation / Luke 21
According to Daniel 9:24-27 and 11QMelch., Jesus would come in the 10th. Jubilee which they calculated to be somewhere between AD 17 – AD 28. And Messiah had 49-50 years (that 10th Jubilee period) to accomplish all of His redemptive work before the destruction of the temple in AD 70. The last Messiahic 7th week or 7 years of Daniel 9:24-27 is divided in half or two 3 ½ years periods. Jesus inaugurates the New Covenant (NC) through His death and is “cut off” between AD 27 – AD 30. Then the last 3 ½ years period is the “war” “like a flood” or “desolation” of temple per Daniel 9:26-27 which was fulfilled during AD 67 – AD 70.
The Jews called their land a “holy place” and thus when the Roman armies set foot on their land and surrounded the city, they were the “abomination” that would cause “desolation” for Jerusalem and her temple (Mt. 24:15/Lk. 21:20). These were the “times of the Gentiles” (the last “3 ½ years” of Dan. 9:24-27 and Dan. 12:7) when the Roman armies treaded underneath their feet Jerusalem and led them into captivity throughout the Empire (Lk. 21:20-24).
Evangelical Zionism has a 2,000 year plus gap between the 69th and 70th seven of
Daniel 9:24-27 with the “prophetic clock starting up again with the events of 1948” which is completely read into the text and is unbiblical. And it plays right into the hands of the Talmudic Zionist Globalist movement!
Daniel 12 / Revelation 11
Daniel 12 recapitulates many aspects of Daniel 7 and 9 and again addresses the abomination of desolation and war or this last “3 ½ years” period “when the power of the holy people would be completely shattered” and they were between AD 67 – AD 70. This was also the time the judgment and resurrection of the dead would be fulfilled in that vs. 7 says “ALL these things” which includes verses 1-7. Revelation 11:1-18 picks up this “3 ½ years” period of AD 67 – AD 70 when the Roman nations would trample Jerusalem (“the city where the Lord was crucified”) under her feet and would be the time for the judgment of the dead.
Post AD 70 there is no valid “Judaism” or ethnic Jew that has a covenant with God outside of having faith in Jesus / Messiah. There are no more sacred space Old Covenant promises of blessings “in the land” only blessings “in Christ” under the New Covenant.
Interpreting Imminence in Revelation and the NT correctly
Since you are claiming the book of Revelation is predicting Transhumanism, A.I., computer chips as the “mark of the beast” etc., you have clearly ignored the inspired NT time indicators and are twisting Scripture to fit what you think about the New World Order. Unfortunately, men like Patrick Wood butcher Revelation as well claiming the 15 minute cities is the the fulfillmetn of “Babylon” in Revelation. These kind of abuses of God’s PURE Word must stop. Not only are you bringing reproach upon the name of Christ and His Word, you are discrediting Christianity to an unbelieving world. Let’s briefly turn our attention to how many try and abuse the imminent time texts in Revelation and the NT and give a brief response.
1). The “symbolic”, “principle”, “ideal” and “eschatological time” view
Simon Kistemaker, in order to walk the creedal party line, decides that the time texts in Revelation should be understood in an “ideal” way or should be somehow “symbolically” interpreted as “…the meaning of eschatological time, expressed not in chronological periods, but in terms of principle.”189
Response: I hate to sound disrespectful here, but it sounds like someone is smoking weed or crack when I hear bizarre comments like these. Or maybe this is coming from some secular philosophical department somewhere? Or perhaps some liberal neo-orthodox seminary? Unfortunately, none of these are the case. Kistemaker is clearly trying his best to hide behind very vague and so-called “scholarly” or philosophical language. Why? It’s because he knows he has no lexical support for making these kinds of comments! I’m sorry, but the truth is that the Futurist and creedal emperor really doesn’t have any clothes on here, folks.
This sounds like other kinds of gibberish I hear such as Jesus’ Second Coming is “always near” (ex. Anthony A. Hoekema), or “For the NT writers, the nearness of the Parousia is not so much chronological nearness as a “salvation-history nearness.”
John MacArthur claims the NT authors truly expected Christ’s “soon”, “will not delay” coming to occur in their lifetimes, but then says that’s just what Christ wants all of us to think and expect. Yet MacArthur also affirms that Christ may continue to “delay” His coming another 2,000 years and counting. If language means anything, how on God’s green earth can Christ’s Second Coming be genuinely “near” and “will not delay” for the inspired writers of the NT, genuinely “near” and “will not delay” for us, and yet at the same time Christ could delay His coming for another 2,000 years?!? MacArthur’s friend. R.C. Sproul. correctly called this kind of philosophical mumbo jumbo and exegetical gymnastics as on par with liberal “neo-orthodoxy,” and he corrected men like F.F. Bruce for trying to defend similar dribble:
“When F. F. Bruce speaks of faith making the time be ‘at hand,’ this sounds all too much like Rudolf Bultmann’s famous theology of timelessness, which removes the object of faith from the realm of real history and consigns it to a super temporal realm of the always present hic et nunc [here and now].”
There is also some irony here for those Futurist, Reformed commentators like Kistemaker, Hoekema, etc. who claim to want to honor God’s sovereignty in the redemptive history of men. We hear from them that “God will accomplish what He sets out to do when He says and decrees it to take place” kind of rhetoric. John uses a very strong word in Revelation 1:1 to indicate that the prophecy most assuredly will be fulfilled “shortly” when he says it “must (Greek dei) shortly take place.” This word means, “necessity established by the counsel and decree of God, especially by that purpose of his which relates to the salvation of men by the intervention of Christ and which is disclosed in the Old Testament prophecies.” The Second Coming or appearing of Christ as our Great High Priest “in a very little while and will not delay” (Heb. 9:26-28—10:37) “relates to the salvation of men,” and to teach otherwise is to go against the sovereign decrees and purposes of God! To claim Christ didn’t come when He decreed and purposed to is not something any real Calvinist should attempt to teach. Selah.
Not only is a denial of God’s sovereignty inseparably connected to a denial of NT imminence, but an indirect attack on the inspiration of Scripture is in view as well.
As Gary DeMar writes,
“Any student of the Bible who does not interpret these time texts to mean anything other than close at hand is in jeopardy of denying the integrity of the Bible.”
The inspired writers were “led into all truth…concerning things to come” (the timing and nature of the Second Coming). They were not giving us what they “felt” might happen when they taught Christ was going to come in their lifetimes, generation, soon, etc.
2). The “when Jesus decides to come He will come really fast then” view
“Must shortly or quickly (Greek en taxei in the taxos word group) take place” (Rev. 1:1; see also: 2:16; 3:11; 22:6-7, 12, 20) is a key phrase.
Premillennial Zionist John Walvoord writes of en tachei,
“…indicating a rapidity of execution after the beginning takes place. The idea is not that the event may occur soon, but that when it does, it will be sudden (Lk. 18:8; Acts 12:7; 22:18; 25:4; Rms. 16:20).”
Let me summarize this view as teaching “whenever Jesus decides to come, then He will come really quickly.” This is like me calling the fire department in an emergency and they tell me, “Don’t worry, we will be there “shortly”, “quickly” and our arrival will be “near.” And yet when they pull up a week later after my house has burnt down I say, “I thought you were coming ‘quickly.’ What happened?!?” And they reply, “Well, what we meant was when we decide to come, then we would drive very quickly at that point.” This is how Dispensationalist Thomas Ice has also sought to interpret the tachos word family with no success.
Response: None of the translations I have consulted give this imaginative meaning to en tachei. Not only this, but Arndt & Gingrich translate en tachei (in Lk. 18:8; Acts 12:7; 22:18; 25:4; Rom. 16:20; Walvoord’s “proof texts”) as “soon, in a short time.” And even outside of the Bible (e.g. LXX or Josephus) taxos means – yes, you guessed it – “quickly” or “without delay.” And even if one were to grant this unsubstantiated meaning to en tachei, what of the other Greek words John used to communicate imminence in Revelation such as “near” / “at hand” (Greek engus) (Rev. 1:3; 22:10) or “about to be” (Greek mello) (Rev. 1:19; 3:10)? Clearly, John is using a wide range of imminent words such as en tachei, taxos, and mello harmoniously to prophesy that Christ’s Second Coming would be fulfilled imminently and not thousands of years later.
The Book of Revelation is filled with a contemporary first century group of Christians experiencing persecution and martyrdom, in which Jesus comforts them by explaining that He will return “soon” and in a “little while” to vindicate them from their first century persecutors and give them “relief” at His appearing from these Jewish persecutors – their “countrymen” the Pharisees, or the “synagogue of Satan” (Rev. 6:10-11; Mt. 23:30-36, Mt. 24; 1Thess. 2:14-16/2Thess. 1:6-7). Jesus was either faithful to return and gave them relief from these first century persecutors or He didn’t. It’s really that simple.
3). “Jesus was just saying His coming was a certain event to occur” view
This is what the Greek words actually are in Revelation 22:20 to communicate both genuine imminence and the thought of certainty:
“Surely [Greek nai – means ‘certainly’] I am coming quickly” [Greek tachu – means an event will be ‘without delay’ or take place ‘soon’].
Notice the text does not say, “Surely I am coming surely/certainly” (that would be redundant).
If all Jesus was trying to communicate was that His coming was “certain” to happen someday, there were Greek words He could have used instead of the taxos, engus, and mello word groups!
4). “Revelation is teaching that the beginning or inauguration of fulfillment was near, not the consummation of fulfillment” view
Perhaps the latest trend, and innovative “scholarly” approach from some Futurists to avoid the obvious, is to claim that the “inauguration” of fulfilled prophecy was genuinely “at hand” when John wrote Revelation, but not the consummation of the prophecy. G.K. Beale writes:
“The focus of ‘quickness’ and ‘nearness’ in vv 1-3 is primarily on inauguration of prophetic fulfillment and its ongoing aspect, not on nearness of consummated fulfillment… Indeed, what follows shows that the beginning of fulfillment and not final fulfillment is the focus.”
Response: This is so obviously wrong and it’s disturbing that a publisher even paid for these kinds of comments to go into print for the Christian public to read, let alone portray them as “scholarly”! The entire book of “Revelation” or “prophecy [singular] of this book” [singular] was to be fulfilled “shortly” or “soon” (Rev. 1:1; 22:18-20). And everyone knows that the Second Coming and judgment described as taking place “soon” is the “consummative” event, and Pentecost and the giving of the Holy Spirit was the “inauguration” event that took place some 30 years in the past when John wrote!
Alex, now let’s get into some of the specifics that we didn’t have time to dig into on the show:
The War of Revelation – Armageddon and Gog and Magog
Alex, you had also mentioned that in your thinking “Preterism” was the view that Titus’ siege on Jerusalem was the fulfillment of the book of Revelation and that is very close to the truth. Here is a section taken from my book on that subject and addressing the “five months” and “locust” of Revelation 9:
The Five months / the locust / Titus – “The earthly reflection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation. As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.
At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army following the precedence set in Joel. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulfillment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”
This play on words for “Apollo”–the god of death and plague–and “Destroyer” in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation who was the “destroyer” of Jerusalem. And who coincidentally besieged the city FOR EXACTLY 5 MONTHS just as stated in Rev 9:10!” (Armageddon Deception, p. 231)
The beast as Nero and Rome
1). The Beast – Beasts in Daniel represented the four Gentile Kingdoms (Babylon, Medes & Persians, Greece and Rome) that would rule over Israel (Dan. 7:1-7). But the fourth beast took on qualities of the other three, and was more “dreadful and exceedingly strong” than the others. It also is described as taking on some of the attributes of the other beasts (Dan. 7:7) as we see in Revelation 13. This could be simply because Rome was the fourth beast and had consumed and assimilated those other world empires, and she thus takes on those characteristics and power as well.
2). The 10 horns – The beast is described as having 10 horns, seven heads, and rising out of the sea. The 10 horns is possibly a reference to Rome whereby she was divided into 10 provinces making up the Empire, which were: Italy, Achaia, Asia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, Spain, Gaul, Britain, and Germany.
3). The seven heads – is most likely a reference to the seven hills of Rome, which was a symbol of the imperial city. Revelation 17:9-10 informs us that the seven heads are seven mountains on which the harlot (apostate Israel) sits.
4). Rising out of the sea – is referring to Satan calling on this beast from the sea which often times in Scripture represents the Gentiles, or in this case would be Rome.
Most Partial and Full Preterists see the corporate “beast” in this chapter to be the Roman Empire and her head to be Nero. With Rome and Nero being the beast, the following evidence is given in the book of Revelation:
a). Seven mountains – Rome was known to be the famous “city on seven hills,” and the seven heads is later interpreted as seven mountains (cf. 17:7).
b). The beast comes up out of the sea – and the sea in Scripture often times represents Gentile nations and powers, as do fierce animals with horns (13:12).
c). The seven heads are not just seven mountains, but seven kings (17:9-10) – of which five have fallen or have previously died when John is writing (Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius), the current one “now is” (the sixth being Nero), and when the seventh (Galba) comes, his reign would be brief.
d). Rome and Nero persecuted and killed Christians with ferocity – “prevailing” against them for a time, as even Daniel 7 predicted, before they would inherit the kingdom. Nero was known as a “beast” and put Christians on stakes, lit them on fire and rode his chariot naked. He also was crazy and often placed young boys in animal skins and raped them.
e). Nero / Beast committed “blasphemies” – through making coins of himself, depicting himself as the sun god or a new Apollo worthy of worship (13:5-6, 8).
f). Nero Caesar the reference to John’s common first century cryptogram – Archaeologists have documented the Hebrew spelling (Nrwn Qsr – Nero Caesar) which comes to 666 or six hundred and sixty-six. Alphabets also functioned as a numerical system (n = 50; r = 200; w = 6; n = 50; q = 100; s = 60; r = 200) – which gives us 666.
g). The mark of the beast – If one did not take the mark of the beast (that is, acknowledging that he was the supreme king – “we have no king but Caesar”), Rome made the buying and selling of goods difficult and often times put them to death for not making this declaration.
h). The 3 ½ years persecution – Nero was engaged in a war with the Jews for 42 months or 3 ½ years – from November AD 64 – June AD 68 (13:5).
i). The beast revives – After Nero died, the Roman Empire seemed to have come to an end with several civil wars erupting, but the Empire recovered and revived (13:3, 7).
The last of Daniel’s four beasts is Rome and it comprises both Roman elements (iron) and that of the apostate Jews and Herodian dynasty (clay) (Dan. 2:40-43). These groups have a love-hate relationship which made the kingdom vulnerable and weak. At first, they both come together in seeking to destroy Christ and the early church, but since clay does not mix or cling with iron, the apostate Jews (clay) rebel against the Romans (iron) and this results in the Roman-Jewish War.
As we move into Revelation, the beast theme is addressing Nero the sixth king, the Roman Empire (the sea beast), the apostate Jews (the land beast) and the Satanic seven-headed beast or dragon from the underworld who is pulling the strings of these other beasts to come against Christ, His saints and to eventually turn on each other in order to tear apart Jerusalem and her temple. Therefore, the judgment of Satan within the beast theme was also fulfilled “shortly” in AD 70 along with the other enemies in the great end of the age war of AD 67 – AD 70.
While the Roman Empire did not end in AD 70, its ability to rule or “shake” God’s Kingdom did. The four Gentile world empires that ruled over God’s people in Daniel were able to “shake” God’s old covenant kingdom (destroy and loot her city and temple). But in AD 70, Rome’s power to do so was destroyed and lost because postAD 70 God’s kingdom (city and temple) on earth is set up within the hearts of His people and thus could no longer be shaken, plundered or destroyed as the old had. The riches of this kingdom are found in the righteousness of Christ buried deep within the hearts and souls of His people, never to be taken! It is in this way that the entire statue of Daniel 2 (the four Gentile kingdoms & apostate Jews) comes crashing down when the stone (Christ & His Kingdom) strike it in AD 70.
And while the Roman Beast was not completely destroyed in AD 70, Satan/the Ancient Serpent/the Dragon, whose demonic legions influenced Rome and apostate Judaism, was cast into the Lake of Fire and “crushed” “shortly” (Rms. 16:20/Gen. 3:15) in AD 70.
This end-time “the Battle” of Revelation 19 goes on to describe the covenant-cursing divorce and judgment of God’s old covenant wife/Jerusalem, while at the same time He consummates His marriage to His new covenant wife/the New Jerusalem (the Church). While the wedding feast takes place for the new covenant Wife/Jerusalem, the old covenant harlot wife/Jerusalem gets fed to the birds – “all the birds gorged themselves on their flesh” (Rev. 19:6-9; 21).
This is in direct harmony with Jesus’ teaching concerning the Roman-Jewish War, in that old covenant Judaism would be left a dead body feasted upon by the birds (Mt. 24:28/Lk. 17:37). John is also in lock step with Jesus concerning the eschatological wedding theme, when at the time of the wedding God was going to send His armies (the Romans) to “kill those [Jewish] murderers” and “burn their city” (Mt. 22:7). Like the unfaithful wife of a priest, Jerusalem is both stoned and burned in the unfolding events of AD 67 – AD 70.
Revelation 16 – “the war” and Armageddon
The texts I want to develop here in Revelation 16 are primarily verses 14-16, 19-20:
“They are demonic spirits that perform signs, and they go out to the kings of the whole world, to gather them for the battle (or the war) on the great day of God Almighty. “Look, I come like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake and remains clothed, so as not to go naked and be shamefully exposed.” Then they gathered the kings together to the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon” (Rev. 16:14-16).
“The great city split into three parts, and the cities of the nations collapsed. God remembered Babylon the Great and gave her the cup filled with the wine of the fury of his wrath. Every island fled away and the mountains could not be found” (Rev. 16:19-20).
The first point I would like to make and that we should pay careful attention to, is that the context for the gathering of the armies in “Armageddon” and the coming “THE war of the Great Day of God” that ensues in Revelation 16, is for the purpose of judging Babylon. Therefore, to understand when this war takes place, we need to identify who Babylon is in the prophecy.
Earlier in Revelation 11:8 we are told that Babylon or this “great city” is old covenant Jerusalem – “where our Lord was crucified.” So “Armageddon” and “the war” here has nothing to do with Babylon or the great city being the Roman Catholic Church, or the lands or nations of modern-day Iran, Iraq, Syria, Muslims, China, the Russians, or even modern Israel. This is a “war” and judgment upon old covenant Jerusalem.
The rest of the prophecy tells us why “the war” comes about or why Babylon is to be judged. In chapters 17-18 we learn that it is because old covenant Jerusalem, or Babylon, has played the harlot and has a history of killing all the prophets God sends to her, and that Babylon has gotten drunk off the blood of the apostles, prophets, and martyrs (again, that Jesus promised to send to her in Matthew 23, before He judged that generation and desolated their temple). As a result, God then judges her because she has now filled up the measure of their suffering, and thus the cup of God’s wrath is now full and ready to be poured out. The time of avenging the last apostles and prophets Jesus had sent to her, along with all the blood of the martyrs going as far back as Genesis, had come!
The coming “Great Day” of God’s judgment and wrath in Revelation 16, in relation to bringing judgment upon Israel’s sin of bloodguilt, has also been previously addressed in Revelation 6. In Revelation 6 John is consistent with Jesus’ time frame of “the war” and vindication of the martyrs as developed in Isaiah 2-4. John tells us that the vindication for the martyrs would be in a “very little while” after their number would be completed. This corresponds with Jesus’ teaching in Matthew 23 where He says the blood of the martyrs would be filled up or completed within their generation.
John, like Jesus in Luke 23, also cites the last days war and coming Day of judgment of Isaiah 2—4 in Revelation 6:15-17. Here people are seeking to hide themselves, in caves and among the rocks of the mountains, from the majesty of the Lord’s “Great Day” of judgment coming. And in both Revelation 6 and our Armageddon prophecy here in Revelation 16, parallel de-creation language is used. “Every mountain and island was removed” in chapter 6 is parallel to “every island fled away and the mountains could not be found” in chapter 16. So thus far John is using the last days war of Isaiah 2-4 against old covenant Jerusalem for shedding the blood of the martyrs and announcing that they would be judged imminently in that first century generation just as Jesus used Isaiah 2-4 in Luke 23:28-30 and Matthew 23:31-39.
So then what relationship does the term “Armageddon” have with “the war of the Great Day of God”? Armageddon simply means “Mount Megiddo.” And yet there is no “mountain” there because it is a plain, with the closest mountain being Mount Carmel. This term and the geographical locations are referred to because they function as a symbol for famous battles Israel and her enemies had there. As David Chilton and Farrer explain,
“Megiddo” thus was for St. John a symbol of defeat and desolation, a “Waterloo” signifying the defeat of those who set themselves against God, as Farrer explains: “In sum, Mt. Megiddo stands in his mind for a place where lying prophecy and its dupes go to meet their doom; where kings and their armies are misled to their destruction; where kings and their armies are misled to their destruction; and where all the tribes of the earth mourn, to see Him in power, whom in weakness they had pierced.”
Others such as Dr. Michael Heiser make a connection that this war takes place in literal Jerusalem known as “the Mount of Assembly.” Here is a sampling of Heiser’s points,
“…the Hebrew phrase behind John’s Greek transliteration of our mystery Hebrew term is actually h-r-m-‘-d. But what does this mean? If the first part (h-r) is the Hebrew word har (“mountain”), is there a har m-‘-d in the Hebrew Old Testament?”
“The phrase in question exists in the Hebrew Bible a har mo’ed. Incredibly, it is found in Isaiah 14:13,…”
“The result in the case of Armageddon is dramatic. When John draws on this ancient Hebrew phrase, he is indeed pointing to a climactic battle at Jerusalem. Why? Because Jerusalem is a mountain—Mount Zion. And if Baal and the gods of the other nations don’t like Yahweh claiming to be the Most High and claiming to run the cosmos from the heights of Zaphon/Mount Zion, they can try to do something about it.
And of course they do. Armageddon is about how the unbelieving nations, empowered by…the prince of darkness—Lord (ba’al) of the dead, prince Baal (zbl ba’al), Beelzebul—will make one last, desperate effort to defeat Jesus at the place where Yahweh holds council, Mount Zion, Jerusalem.”
This now harmonizes with Jesus’ teaching in Matthew 24; Luke 21 and the book of Revelation–with the end of the [old covenant] age war taking place when the Romans would surround and tread Jerusalem (the city that crucified the Lord) beneath their feet in the events of AD 67 – AD 70.
Christ coming as “a thief” in the following verse is another way of describing the coming of “the Great Day of God.” And we know from Revelation 3:3, 11 that Christ coming as a thief was His AD 70 “soon” coming. Not only this, but His coming as a thief once again connects this event to Christ coming in the generation of AD 30 – AD 70 (cf. Mt. 24:34-43).
In putting this together so far, we learn:
Major Premise: Revelation 16-18 teaches us that the gathering for “the war” in “Megiddo” was for the purpose of bringing judgment upon the great city of Babylon (identified in 11:8 as old covenant Jerusalem – “where the Lord was crucified”) for shedding the blood of the martyrs.
Minor Premise: But the war designed to judge old covenant Jerusalem and vindicate the martyrs in Revelation 16-18 is referring to the same “Great Day” of judgment and vindication of the martyrs in Revelation 6 to take place “in a very little while,” and is the “last days” war of Isaiah 2-4.
Conclusion: Therefore, both Jesus and John prophesied that “the war” and vindication of the martyrs in Isaiah 2-4 would be fulfilled in the AD 30 – AD 70 “this generation” or “in a very little while,” when Jerusalem (or Babylon the great city) would be judged in “THE war” between AD 67 – AD 70.
Revelation 19-20 – “the war” of Gog and Magog
“And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth/land, and their armies, gathered together to make [THE] war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army” (Rev. 19:19).
Again, chapters 18-19 are contextually tied to the defeat of the “great city” of “Babylon,” which in Revelation 11:8 and Matthew 23 has been identified as Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified, and the persecutor of the OT prophets and NT apostles and prophets Jesus would send to her.
Revelation 19:11-21 is simply another recapitulation of the same end-time battle and judgment we have seen in chapters 11 and 16 – except described differently with different imagery, etc.
Amazingly, the Dispensational Zionist “prophecy experts” claim that the rider of the white horse in Revelation 6:2 is the “antichrist,” but there is absolutely no exegetical evidence for this. Here in chapter 19, once again the rider of the white horse is described as Jesus Christ. In chapter 6 Christ comes on the white horse (His Second Coming) conquering – thus vindicating the martyrs “in a very little while” in the “great day of His wrath,” pouring out the covenant curses of Deuteronomy 28 upon the land of Israel. We previously saw Jesus appealing to the old covenant curses of Deuteronomy 28 in connection with the end-time war in the Olivet Discourse.
Men like James Jordan,  Gary DeMar and David Lowman believe the battle of Gog and Magog was fulfilled during the time of Esther when Haman gathered the nations of the then known world to come and attack Israel but were defeated by God. Let me seek to summarize the main points of this position:
1). “Ezra and Nehemiah both mention the large amounts of silver and gold that the Jews brought back from exile. These are the same items we are told the approaching armies were attacking to plunder.
2). The battle with Haman’s armies takes place after Israel is returned to the land, during Darius’ reign. Ezekiel prophesied until just a few short decades before this time.
3). Esther and Ezekiel’s enemies from the north both include Persia and Ethiopia.
4). In a very short battle [in Esther], the Israelites destroy Haman’s army, killing nearly 100,000 despite being greatly outnumbered.
5). Both passages state that the Jews were attacked by all of Persia’s provinces. DeMar argues well for parallel boundaries between the Persian Empire in Esther’s day and Gog/Magog and her allies in Ezekiel’s vision.
6). In Ezekiel’s vision, the Jews were living in unwalled towns. DeMar notes that this was also the case in Esther’s day, which makes sense since they were part of the Persian Empire at that time, an empire known for its benevolence and for taking good care of its subjects.
7). Haman (the enemy of Esther) is shown to be an “Agagite,” and even a “Gogite” in some manuscripts. Also the invaders in Ezekiel’s vision would be buried in the Valley of “Hamon-Gog.”
Others, such as William Hendriksen, see the first historical and typological reference to the war of Gog and Magog to be during the time of the Seleucids:
“The expression ‘Gog and Magog’ is borrowed from the book of Ezekiel, where the term undoubtedly indicates that power of the Seleucids especially as it was revealed in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, the bitter enemy of the Jews. The center of his kingdom was located in North Syria. Seleucus established his residence there in the city of Antioch on the Orontes. To the east his territory extended beyond the Tigris. To the north the domain over which the Seleucids ruled included Mesheck and Tubal, districts in Asia Minor. Accordingly, Gog was the prince of Magog, that is, Syria. Therefore, the oppression of God’s people by ‘Gog and Magog’, refers, in Ezekiel, to the terrible persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, ruler of Syria.”
If this view is correct and the attack of Gog and Magog (Syria under Antiochus Epiphanes) was the last great oppression which Israel endured to close the OT, it stands to reason that John in the book of Revelation would use this as a symbolic or type/anti-type description of the end-time battle to close the old covenant age and to liberate the new covenant Israel of God.
Either way, John is using the symbolism of a past battle of Gog and Magog within Israel’s history to depict a future (but “shortly,” “at hand,” “soon,” and “about to be”) persecution and battle for John and his contemporaries to experience and relate to.
Also notice that ancient weapons were being used and burned (Ezek. 38:4-5; 39:9), which would fit the warfare, destruction and fire of AD 67 – AD 70 more than it would a description of nuclear or modern-day warfare.
Here we have Satanically-led nations being gathered from the four corners of the earth (or better translated as the land of Palestine) to make war and surround the New Jerusalem (the Church). The Greek word here for “earth” is ge, which is consistently and accurately translated as “land” in Revelation in Young’s Literal Translation. These are not nations gathered from all ends of the globe, but rather are from the world as they knew it (the Roman Empire) or the “land” of Palestine or that of the Jews.
But who are the “nations” involved? Well, the Roman army consisted of all the nations of the then known world that she had conquered, and as we have seen both Nero and Rome were known as a/the “beast” which persecuted and thus waged war against the early Church (the New Jerusalem / the saints God loves).
But the apostate Jews, known to be a part of the beast, also persecuted and waged war against the first century Christians and, as James Stuart Russell points out, they too were understood to be “nations” and “kings”:
“In our Lord’s time it was usual to speak of the inhabitants of Palestine as consisting of several nations. Josephus speaks of ‘the nation of the Samaritans…” ‘the nation of the Galileans…’ etc… Judea was a distinct nation, often with a king of its own; so also, was Samaria; and so, with Idumea, Galilee, Perea…all of which had at different times princes with the title of Ethnarch, a name which signifies the ruler of a nation.”
So, what we have here is an apocalyptic description of perhaps one or both persecuting powers – the Romans and apostate Jews – seeking to destroy new covenant Jerusalem. Before the Christians fled to Pella, there was in a sense a city (the new covenant Jerusalem from above) within a city (residing physically within the walls of the then present old covenant Jerusalem from below).
At some point, the Christians see the sign of Jerusalem being surrounded by armies (Jewish, Roman or both) and flee the city to Pella as the Lord directed them. They were protected by God while the nations who persecuted the Church destroyed each other and were defeated in their effort to destroy the New Jerusalem. In Revelation 21-22, the gates of the New Jerusalem are continually open post-AD 70 in the new covenant age – not only as a symbol for evangelism for the nations to come into her for salvation and healing, but as a symbol that there is no threat of her destruction because God has defeated her enemies and watches over her.
Christian Full Preterism brings together and harmonizes the classic Christian Amillennial view and the Christian Partial Preterist view regarding the time frame of this ONE end-time war in the book of Revelation. Consider the following:
Major Premise: If “THE war” and judgment scenes of Revelation 16-20 are depicting ONE “time of the end” event (through typical prophetic recapitulation – Classic Amillennial View),
Minor Premise: But “THE war” and judgment scenes of Revelation 16-19 were fulfilled in and by AD 70, (Partial Preterist View),
Conclusion: Therefore, “THE war” (which is ONE and the same) and judgment scenes of Revelation 16-20 were fulfilled in and by AD 70 (the Full Preterist View).
The Martyr Vindication Theme
The “soon” Second Coming that took place at the end of the millennium was to vindicate the martyrs here in Revelation 20. Again, this is consistent with what we saw in Revelation 6 and 16-18 along with Jesus’ teaching in Matthew 23-24.
Through the imprecatory prayers of the persecuted Church and the cries of the martyrs, they call fire down upon the apostate mountain of old covenant Jerusalem and have it thrown into the sea (Mt. 21:18-22 / Rev. 8:1-8). It was through the preaching of the gospel in the then known world, the filling up the measure of Israel’s guilt in their killing of the martyrs, and the imprecatory prayers of the saints that God took the kingdom from Israel and gave it to the Church in her restored, matured, and glorified form.
Contrary to the teachings of Muslims, Zionists, and Dispensational Zionists, and the ignorant speculations of Hollywood and the media, the gathering of the armies for “THE war” in the battle of Armageddon and or “The war” of Gog and Magog was an event that was fulfilled in Jesus’ contemporary generation and thus “shortly” fulfilled in John’s day. When the first century Christians saw the sign of either the Zealot / Idumean armies or the Roman armies surrounding Jerusalem, they left the city and God used these armies to bring desolation and destruction upon the city and temple.
The Church today is not to look to a sign of “wars and rumors of wars” or nuclear developments in the Middle East that allegedly will bring about “THE” final war and “rapture” of the Church. And she most assuredly is not to fund and support them – directly or indirectly!
2). “If all prophecy has been fulfilled and the end of the age war was in AD 67 – AD 70 and Titus was the Antichrist, what about:
a). The Devil being in chains?
b). Where is Christ returning to earth?
c). Where are the giant pillars of fire that destroy whole cities?
d). There was no worldwide mark of the beast in which the entire world saw the beast right?
e). Are we really going to say for the last 2,000 years that this is a Christ on earth utopia?”
Alex, Jesus explicitly tells you that “all” OT prophecy would be fulfilled in His contemporary “this generation” – do you believe Him or not (Lk. 21:22-32)?
The Bible never identifies one person as the “antichrist” – 1 John says there were “many antichrists” and he is referring to the Judaizers. So no I don’t believe Titus was the “antichrist.” I think you are trying to refer to the “Beast” (Nero which I have already covered) or to the “Man of Sin” (which I will cover in a bit).
a). What about the Devil being in chains?
Jesus “bound” the Devil during His earthly ministry (cf. Mt. 12:22-32). And this was so the gospel would be preached throughout the then known world of the Roman Empire and able to bear forth fruit and of which it was (Cols. 1:5-6, 23; Rms. 10:18; 16:25-26). It was also to restrain the Roman army (which consisted of the “nations” they had conquered) from coming against Jerusalem before the gospel could be spread throughout the Roman Empire (Rev. 20:2-3). The binding of Satan with a figurative chain was to limit him in these particular areas – not to make all of his activities to cease between AD 27 – AD 70. He in fact was let loose for a “short time” between AD 66 – AD 70 to “deceive the nations” within the Roman world and Jewish world to come up against Jerusalem and make her and the temple “desolate.”
b). Where is Christ returning to earth?
The Bible teaches that Jesus would return in the Father’s glory and thus as the Father had come upon the clouds in the OT. The Father was physically unseen but was figuratively “seen” coming upon the clouds through invading armies (Assyrians, Babylonians, etc…).
Many Futurists insist that Jesus’ physical body was seen for some period of time as He ascended into the sky. However, verse nine simply says, “He was lifted up, and a cloud received Him from their eyes.” Jesus was certainly seen just before He was “lifted up” (Acts 1:9). But it is not at all certain that He was directly seen as He ascended into the sky.
In verse 11, the disciples were told that Jesus would come in a similar manner or way to how they had seen Him enter heaven (the sky). The continuity (or similarity – “in a similar way”) of Him coming as He had entered heaven is found in the fact that He would come in the heavenly glory-cloud of His Father (Mt. 16:27). Jesus was not physically seen after He was received into the glory-cloud. It was while He was hidden from sight in that cloud that He was indirectly seen entering the sky. A son can “see his father” as his father’s plane is taking off from the runway and off into the sky, without directly physically seeing his father’s body. In seeing the plane (which contains his father and the other passengers), he can still correctly say, “I can see dad; there he goes.” And He was to come in like manner. Therefore, He would not be physically or directly seen when He came “in like manner,” in the cloud, to indwell His church at the end of the old covenant age (Luke 17:20–37; John 14:2–3, 23).
The phrase “in like manner” simply means “in a similar way” – not exactly the same way (which seems to be how most falsely interpret the passage). Jesus didn’t ascend riding on a horse with a sword proceeding from His mouth, did He? Did “every eye” on the planet earth see Him leave? “The exact same way” argument offered by hyper-literalists self-implodes upon itself when they apply other Second Coming passages literally to His ascension event and demand an “exact same way” of fulfillment.
Futurists are not correct when they say that Jesus was going to come back in the same way that He “departed.” The Scriptures teach that Jesus would come in the same way He had entered the sky. He entered the sky hidden from literal eyesight in the cloud of God’s glory.
Here is the order of events:
- As they looked, He was taken up (Acts 1:9).
- A cloud received Him from their eyes (Acts 1:9).
These first two events could very well have happened simultaneously. Even Partial Preterist, Keith Mathison, admits that the verse could be translated, “He was lifted up; that is, a cloud received Him out of their sight.” It is a very real possibility that Jesus was instantly hidden in the cloud at the moment His feet left the earth.
- Then the disciples saw Him going into the sky. That is, they looked intently into the sky as He was ascending in the cloud (Acts 1:10–11).
In the Old Testament, God was never literally or directly seen coming in His glory when He judged or saved Israel and other nations. Jesus was not literally seen again after He entered the cloud of God’s glory. He was “taken up in glory” (1 Tim. 3:16) and He would come in glory as the Ancient of Days (cf. Dan. 7:13 OG LXX; Rev. 1:7-17).
The Lord God had become flesh. John bore testimony to the fact that looking at and touching Jesus was to look at and touch God Himself (John 1:14; 1 John 1:1). God was physically seen in the flesh, but this was temporary for the second person of the Godhead (Heb. 5:7), even as He had been born into and under the old covenant system with its temporal types and shadows (Gal. 4:4; Rom. 5–8; 2 Cor. 3; Heb. 8:13). Though Jesus is no longer in the flesh, He forever retains His human nature. He is forever Man, even as the saints in heaven today, who are no longer in their physical bodies, are still human/man by nature. Neither the Son of Man nor those who are in Him, whether in heaven or on earth, are “nonhuman” as some Futurists theorize.
Ironically, the point of the question, “Why do you stand here looking into the sky,” was that Jesus was not going to return to His physical form. It was futile for the disciples to long for Jesus to return to the earthly form He had taken when He was born of Mary. In His ascension, Jesus had returned to His pre-incarnate glory. The question of the two men was rhetorical, and it meant, “There is no use in standing here longing for Jesus to return to you and to be as He was in the days of His flesh. He will come, but He will come in the manner you saw Him enter heaven—hidden from physical eyes in the cloud of the Father’s glory.”
We agree with the majority of commentators and cross reference systems which see the in-like-manner coming of Jesus in Acts 1:11 as being parallel with the coming of
Jesus on or in the cloud(s) in Matthew 16:27–28, 24:30–31, 26:64–68; Luke 21:27, and Revelation 1:7. But as we have seen, all of these other texts were fulfilled by AD 70. Partial Preterists agree that all of these other passages were fulfilled in AD 70, yet hold onto Acts 1:11 to support their Futurist creeds. They admit that Christ was figuratively “seen” (perceived, understood) at a figurative “coming” in/on the clouds in AD 70, but they deny that this was the fulfillment of Acts 1:11.
Partial Preterist Milton Terry, in contrast, took a lucid, biblical approach, seeing Matthew 24:30–31, 34; Acts 1:11; and Revelation 1:7 as all being fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem at the end of the old covenant age:
“Whatever the real nature of the Parousia, as contemplated in this prophetic discourse, our Lord unmistakably associates it with the destruction of the temple and city, which he represents as the signal termination of the preMessianic age. The coming on clouds, the darkening of the heavens, the collapse of elements, are, as we have shown above, familiar forms of apocalyptic language, appropriated from the Hebrew prophets.
Acts i, 11, is often cited to show that Christ’s coming must needs be spectacular, “in like manner as ye beheld him going into the heaven.” But (1) in the only other three places where [“in like manner”] occurs, it points to a general concept rather than the particular form of its actuality. Thus, in Acts vii, 28, it is not some particular manner in which Moses killed the Egyptian that is notable, but rather the certain fact of it. In 2 Tim. iii, 8, it is likewise the fact of strenuous opposition rather than the special manner in which Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses. And in Matt. xxiii, 37, and Luke xiii, 34, it is the general thought of protection rather than the visible manner of a mother bird that is intended. Again (2), if Jesus did not come in that generation, and immediately after the great tribulation that attended the fall of Jerusalem, his words in Matt. xvi, 27, 28, xxiv, 29, and parallel passages are in the highest degree misleading. (3) To make the one statement of the angel in Acts i, 11, override all the sayings of Jesus on the same subject and control their meaning is a very one-sided method of biblical interpretation. But all the angel’s words necessarily mean is that as Jesus has ascended into heaven so he will come from heaven. And this main thought agrees with the language of Jesus and the prophets.”
My friend David Green has addressed this passage well,
“Note that in Zech. 14:4-5, a mountain became a valley of salvation; and what were once valleys became mountains. This is virtually the same metaphor that was used by Isaiah, Matthew and Luke: “…Make ready the way of the Lord. Make His paths straight. Every valley shall be filled up, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall become straight, and the rough roads smooth; and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.” (Isa. 40:3-4; Matt. 3:3; Lk. 3:4-5).
According to this prophecy, whatever stood in the Church’s way was going to be removed. Instead of a rough and winding highway over a mountain range (the wearying burden of the corrupted Jewish leadership), the Church would be given a straight and smooth road (the easy yoke of Christ). The Way of escape and salvation would overcome all that opposed It. So, in Zech. 14:4-5, the obstacle that opposed the Church would be shattered and overcome by a great valley that would extend to the other side of the obstacle. This is why Zechariah mentioned “the Mount of Olives” by name. That mountain stood in front of the City of Jerusalem, in the path of any who would flee directly to the East away from the City. The Mount of Olives thus served as a physical symbol of a spiritual obstacle or barrier, because of its location in front of Jerusalem. As Zechariah’s obstacle was split and made into a way of salvation, so through Christ Jesus was the “veil” of condemnation torn in two and replaced with the Way of salvation for all men. (Matt. 27:51; Heb. 9:8; 10:19-20) So too was the barrier of “the dividing wall” torn down and replaced with the peace of Christ in all nations. (Eph. 2:14-15) And so too was the destroying “mountain” of Babylon (the Jerusalem of slavery) burned up, cast into the sea, and replaced with the freedom of the glory of the children of God. (Jer. 51:25; Matt. 21:21; Mk. 11:23; Rev. 8:8). Zech. 14:4-5 is a prophecy of Gospel salvation. Before God destroyed His enemies in A.D. 70, He removed the barrier between His elect and their salvation. He provided a Way of escape and of salvation for His Church. That “Way” was Christ, His Word, His Gospel. At the sound of His Gospel-Voice, His disciples fled from the corruption of the world and from the wrath of God (Matt. 3:7; Lk. 3:7; 21:36; Rom. 2:3; Heb. 2:3; 6:18; 12:25; II Peter 1:4; 2:20; Rev. 12:6; 18:4). Abiding in His Word, they were hid under the refuge of the shadow of His Wings, in the valley of His Mountains. (Zech. 14:5).” (David Green, pretcosmos.com Q&A)
There is simply NO prophecy in the OT or NT which teaches Jesus post AD 70 is still in a physical body and will one day float down on a physical cloud to dwell on the earth in an earthly “utopia” as you have asserted.
c). Where are the giant pillars of fire that destroy whole cities?
I’m not sure what texts you are referring to here.
d). There was no worldwide mark of the beast in which the entire world saw the beast
1). the whole world or earth saw such and such in Revelation:
The Greek word ge for “earth” in Revelation is used some 67 times and should be translated as “land” as it is in Luke 21,
“But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation is near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those who are in the midst of her depart, and let not those who are in the country enter her. For these are the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days! For there will be great distress in the land (Greek ge) and wrath upon this people” (Luke 21:20-23).
The word can refer to the land of Israel or the land of the Roman Empire. You are reading the book of Revelation without studying the Greek and in the first century genre it was written in. If I recall Youngs Literal Translation correctly translates ge as “land” throughout Revelation.
2). the mark of the beast
I have touched upon this already. The apostate Jews took the mark of the Roman beast when they rejected their Messiah and declared, “we have no king but Caesar.” If you didn’t acknowledge or worship Caesar as the “son of god” throughout the Roman Empire (take this mark), they made it difficult to “buy and sell.” And the land beast (apostate Jews) kicked Christians out of the synagogues and held funerals for them – making them dead to them and thus would not buy or sell to them. The temptation to compromise and take the mark of the sea or land beast was very real in the first century. The location on the hand or forehead comes from the OT where the Jew was to put the Law / Word of God on/in his forehead (thus meditating on the Word) and on the hand (now putting it into practice with good works). It was never referring to placing something literally on the forehead and hand. Thus trying to make this a fulfillment of the New World Order wanting to track and surveille us with computer chips or saying Transhumanism if the fulfillment of this text is grossly misguided to say the very least.
d). Are we really going to say for the last 2,000 years that this is a Christ on earth utopia?
You are stuck in a false first century unbelieving Jewish concept of a coming Kingdom of God on earth utopia idea. This is the carnal Messianic kingdom the Jews expected and wanted and which Jesus rejected (cf. Jn. 6). The Premillennial and Zionist simply pushes or “postpones” this unbiblical concept of the Messianic kingdom off into the future when Jesus allegedly will come “soon” in our generation.
Contrary to this thinking, Jesus taught His Kingdom was “not of this world” and that when He returned in the first century generation “from heaven” it would “not come with [physical] observation” but would rather be fulfilled and realized “within” His people (Lk. 17:20-37 / Lk. 21:27-32).
Isaiah 65:17-23—chapter 66 says that there will be physical death, child birth, labor, and sinners being evangelized in the New Heavens and New Earth. After Christ comes “soon” in AD 70 and the New Jerusalem comes down, the “Nations” outside in the darkness invited by the Church and the Holy Spirit to “come” and receive “healing” through the gospel and come into the gates and partake of eternal life – pictured as Christ being the Tree of Life and the Holy Spirit being the living water.
The idea that Christ one day is going to float down on a physical cloud and set up an earthly “utopia” is simply not biblical Alex.
3). What about the “Man of Sin” and coming of Christ in 2 Thessalonians 1-2?
1). The immediate context and logical observations from 2 Thess. 1-2:
a). Who were being “troubled”? In the previous chapter we are told that the Second Coming of Christ would give “relief” to the persecuted first century Thessalonian church who were experiencing “trouble” and persecution (2 Thess. 1:5-10). The Thessalonian church consisted of Jewish and Gentile believers who heard Paul preach in the Synagogues (Acts 17).
b). Who were giving the Thessalonians “trouble” and how and when would Christ come and give them the same kind of “trouble,” they were giving the Thessalonians and thus render judgment and wrath upon them? The Thessalonians were persecuted by “jealous Jews” who stirred up trouble from not only the Jewish community but the Gentiles. These Jews were “filling up” the measure of their sin and were thus “about to be” judged or experience God’s wrath in the coming events of AD 67 – AD 70 (1 Thess. 2:14-16/Mt. 23:29-36; Acts 17:1- 31YLT). We are told that they would experience the same kind of “trouble” they were giving the Christians at Christ’s coming. And indeed, they did. When their Jewish and Gentile proselyte persecutors went to Jerusalem for the Passover in the events of AD 66 – AD 70, God laid a “trap” for them (Ps. 69:21-22). When the Christians saw the Roman armies surrounding Jerusalem and then retreat, they fled the city from the “wrath” that was about to come but the unbelieving Jews and Gentile proselytes listened to the false prophets and John Levi to stay in Jerusalem and fight the Romans in the great rebellion (Lk. 21:20-32).
c). If Paul taught a Futurist physical coming of the Lord and some were teaching that the Lord had “already come” (2 Thess. 2:1-2) prior to AD 70, then why wasn’t Paul’s apologetic – “just look out your window – the earth hasn’t been burned up, you haven’t been physically raptured and all the bodies are still in the graveyards? Obviously, He hasn’t come!” But Paul correctly understood that the Second Coming of the Lord event upon the clouds was similar to how God had come upon the clouds in the OT through the Assyrians or Babylonians, except this time it would be through the Romans. Therefore, Paul does not correct an error of a spiritual common prophetic or apocalyptic coming of the Lord to take place in the Thessalonians lifetimes.
2). The Jewish “rebellion” & “man of lawlessness” had to take place first and his “restrainer” had to be taken out of the way (2 Thess. 2:1-8 ESV).
a). John Levi of Gischala was a “lawless man” in that he lied and convinced the Jews to revolt against the Romans, committed sacrilege in the temple, killed the High Priest in the temple and caused the sacrifices to stop in the temple. He thus placed himself in the temple as God – a greater authority than the Romans and God’s Torah. John Levi was alive when Paul wrote and the “he” or “it” of the restraining force God had in place was also alive at the time. The High Priest Ananus encouraged the people to resist John of Levi and the Zealot plan to overthrow Rome, but once John killed Ananus and overtook the temple, the war/rebellion was in full bloom.
b). But what of the language of the “rapture” of 1 Thess. 4:15-17 and the destruction of the man of lawlessness of 2 Thess. 2:8? This coming of Christ was “by the Word of the Lord” (1 Thess. 4:15) found in Mt. 24:30-34. Jesus taught the first century AD 30 – AD 70 “this generation” and contemporary “you” that they would be gathered in the Kingdom at His coming. Likewise, Paul taught this “gathering” or “catching away” was for his first century “we” contemporaries. Both Jesus and Paul are using common Hebraic and prophetic apocalyptic language. Just read Psalm 18 – how is God described in coming to deliver David from his earthly enemies who persecuted him? Did people physically see God “come down” on the wind in a chariot with fire coming out of His mouth devouring David’s enemies while He “took” David in deliverance (Ps. 18:8-19)?!?
Alex, you have recently mentioned that you need more time off so you can meditate on God’s Word and think about what is coming next with the New World Order’s planning. Well, I strongly exhort and encourage you to study these issues out more. I sent you two copies of my book and now this letter to meditate on. You have ignored the imminent time texts of Jesus and the inspired NT writers and have literalized spiritual or apocalyptic language. You have abused God’s Word on Infowars.com and let some of your guests do it as well. You have also pretended to be some kind of prophet claiming you get “downloads” from the Holy Spirit in dreams and visions etc. The office of prophet and the miraculous gifts of prophesying “stopped” or “ceased” in AD 70 when the temple was destroyed (Dan. 9:24 / 1 Cor. 13:8-12). I used to be a Charismatic and thought I was seeing and experiencing miraculous things, but they simply were not what we see in the gospels or in the book of Acts.
I would enjoy you moderating a debate between myself and one of your best theologians which I discern would be Jay Dyer along with one of your Pastor Zionist friends and let’s discuss and take the Barnes v. Fuentes debate up a notch and discuss and debate what the Bible says about modern Israel, the war of Armageddon / Gog and Magog, and how God will defeat the New World Order – as He has all of His enemies throughout the Bible.
Open Letter to the New World Order
Dear Rothschilds, Klaus Schwab, Yuval Harari, and those involved in this Globalist Coup d’Etat,
You have worked behind the scenes for the last 400 years or so and have been identified by many as the “invisible government” or the “puppet masters” pulling the strings in starting revolutions and even installing many of our politicians and that of many other countries. Clearly you have installed Biden as our “dog king” to demonstrate your power and influence you believe you have. And Klaus you are correct that you have “infiltrated / penetrated” the governments of the world.
But let’s be extremely clear – you are not the sovereign puppet masters, in fact, God is sovereignly playing you to do exactly what He wills:
“To God belong wisdom and power; counsel and understanding are his. What he tears down cannot be rebuilt; those he imprisons cannot be released. If he holds back the waters, there is drought; if he lets them loose, they devastate the land. To him belong strength and insight; both deceived and deceiver [that’s you] are His.” (Job 12:13-16).
The Rothschild’s study of the Talmud was all in VAIN! Your Messiah will NEVER come and trying to bring him through war and world conquest has nothing to do with the OT or reality and will never come to fruition. And to the Atheist and Satanic aspects to your narcissistic cult – you have a meaningless and powerless life. Christ “crushed” “Satan” “shortly” in AD 70 (Rms. 16:20/Gen. 3:15) and you are simply following your own lusts for power – not deriving it from Satan or demons. You can only go as far as God allows you to as Pharoah learned and King Nebuchadnezzar learned after God humbled him:
“At the end of that time, I, Nebuchadnezzar, raised my eyes toward heaven, and my sanity was restored. Then I praised the Most High; I honored and glorified him who lives forever. His dominion is an eternal dominion; his kingdom endures from generation to generation. All the peoples of the earth are regarded as nothing. He does as he pleases with the powers of heaven and the peoples of the earth. No one can hold back his hand or say to him: “What have you done?” (Dan. 4:34-35).
God “hardens” hearts like yours as He did with Pharoah to demonstrate His “power” and “wrath” (cf. Rms. 9). You are the puppets, and the only Living and True God is the “puppet master” and unto Him belongs the Kingdoms of this world (Rev. 11:17-18).
Watching the Tigers Fight from the Mountain Top
The Chinese stratagem from Sun Tzu’s The Art of War includes the concept of China sitting on a mountain top provoking and watching the tiger’s fight. Then when the victor is weakened from the fight, China will come in to finish the opponent and get rid of all threats. We have watched you implement this philosophy mastered by the Rothchild’s, Globalist banks and the New World Order who start and profit from both sides of wars and then steps in as the saviors to offer a global peaceful solution. We have China, Islam, Talmudic Zionism and the New World Order all thinking that they are sitting on the mountain top watching the other systems fight and that somehow someday, they will swoop in and usher in their version of a tyrannical one world government for the nations to obey.
Christ Rules from Heaven & Mount Zion
But the truth of the matter is that God sits enthroned on Mount Zion and He raises up wicked men to judge wicked men to accomplish His own purposes. Therefore, we do not fear the New World Order, China, Russia, Iran, North Korea, Islam, Zionism, etc. — because we know the sovereign God (the King of kings) who rules the world from Mount Zion and laughs at those seeking to overthrow Him and rule the world (Psalm 2). He uses their own plans against them (Esther – Haman) and always accomplishes His will.
An example of this can be seen with what I have written to Alex in this letter concerning the book of Revelation. God sovereignly put in the heart of the sea beast (Rome) and the land beast (apostate Jews) to come against Christ and His Church, but God used the persecution to purify and strengthen the faith of His Church. And in the end, He put it in the hearts of the Romans and Jews to devour themselves while allowing the Church to flee from Jerusalem to Pella and escape that “wrath” and “tribulation.” God sits enthroned over the hearts of all men and their wars and uses them to accomplish His purposes. They may intend their wars and schemes for evil, while God will work them out to glorify Himself and ultimately benefit His Church.
Christ has been raised and has ascended to heaven and currently rules in fulfillment of the Davidic covenant (Acts 2:22-35). In fulfillment of Psalm 110, the author of Hebrews demonstrates that He placed His “enemies” “under His feet” in the “Day” that was “drawing near” when He was “about to consume” these “enemies” with “fire” at His coming “in a very, very little while” which would “not be delayed” in the judgment and events of AD 67 – AD 70 (Heb. 10:13-37). Remember what Jesus said and did to those who said they would not have Christ reign over them – “But as for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slaughter them before me.” (cf. Lk. 19:11-27).
Christ and the Church rule the world / nations with a rod and the sword of the Spirit (the everlasting law of the gospel (Rev. 2:26-27; Rev. 21–22:17). The elect from among the nations of the world flow through the gates of the New Jerusalem/Zion to receive spiritual “healing.” Those that come into the New Jerusalem “learn war no more” – that is there is no more barrier between Jew and Gentile or hostility between God and man – in that the gospel gives a peace and security that the Old Covenant system and owning all the money and resources in the world could not provide.
There will always only be One a World Government or Mount Zion from which Christ and the Church reins over the Nations – and it can never be destroyed.
As far as your obsession with accumulating riches, power, and desire to play God and either deny there is an afterlife or seek to extend your lives through transhumanism or somehow download your souls into computers–you would do well to heed the wisdom coming from the Psalms, Proverbs, Peter and Christ Himself:
Psalm 49:5-8, 15: “…those who trust in their wealth and boast of the abundance of their riches…Truly no man can ransom another, or give to God the price of his life, for the ransom of their life is costly and can never suffice.” “Like sheep they are appointed for Sheol; death shall be their shepherd, and the upright shall rule over them in the morning. Their form shall be consumed in Sheol, with no place to dwell. But God WILL RANSOM my soul from the power of Sheol, for he will TAKE me [“SNATCH ME,” “RECEIVE ME” “PULL ME” “RAISE ME UP”] TO HIMSELF.” “For when he dies he will carry nothing away; his glory will not go down after him.” “His soul will go to the generation of his fathers, who will NEVER SEE LIGHT.”
Psalm 73:23-26: Previous context – unlike the wicked who may prosper in this life,…
“Yet I am always with you; you hold me by my right hand. You guide me with your counsel, and afterward you will TAKE me into glory. Whom have I in heaven but you? And earth has nothing I desire besides you. My flesh and my heart may fail, but God is the strength of my heart and my portion forever.”
The Psalmist in Pslam 73 became envious for a time of how the wicked accumulate wealth and seem to go unpunished. But then He,
“Discerned their end” – “Truly YOU SET them in slippery places; you MAKE them FALL to RUIN. How they are destroyed in a moment, swept away utterly by terrors! Like a dream when one awakes, O Lord, when you rouse yourself, you despise them as phantoms” (Ps. 73:16-20).
The souls of the wicked are NOT redeemed from Sheol by God to “see light” or to be taken into God’s presence. BUT the souls of the righteous are redeemed from Sheol to be “taken” into God’s “light,” “glory” and presence “forever” or in the “morning” [or in the resurrection].
Since the gold and silver man stores up in “this life” “cannot ransom his soul,” what is worth more than gold and silver and can ransom or save man from the power of Sheol and eternal separation from God?
A). 1 Pet. 1:4-5, 17-22: Concerning the “ready to be revealed” “inheritance” and “salvation of the soul” in AD 70 Peter writes, “…you were ransomed…not with perishable things such as gold and silver, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish…having purified your souls.”
B). 1 Pet. 1:5, 7: “…by God’s power are being kept/guarded through faith…[being]…more precious than gold that perishes…”.
It’s almost as if Peter is opened to Psalm 49 and is developing it’s soteriological and eschatology hope: Only the blood of Christ and God guarded faith (which are more valuable than gold and silver) can “ransom” or “save” the “soul” and allow it to enter God’s “inheritance” that He, as a righteous Heavenly Father, has provided for His children.
And the Proverbs yield great wisdom on this subject of the afterlife and traveling upon “the way”:
Prov. 8:35-36: Indeed, who finds me finds life eternal, and the treading of her path/way is immortality.
Prov. 12:28: In the path/way of virtue is eternal [Dahood] life , And the treading of her way is immortality [Delitzsch & Dahood – or ESV & AVT “no death”]
Prov. 14:24: The path/way of life eternal is upward for the prudent, thus escaping Sheol below.
In the gospels we learn that Jesus is “The Way” mentioned and predicted in the Proverbs and those that put their trust in Him and thus travel upon this Way would at His Parousia and resurrection event be called or “gathered” “upward” to receive “eternal life” or “never die” (1 Cor. 1:30; Jn. 14:6; Jn. 11:25-26; Jn. 3:16, 36; Jn. 8:24; Mt. 24:30-31/1 Thess. 4:15-17/Rev. 11:12). The point of Matthew 24:30-31 or 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 is not that the living would physically disappear off the planet and or not see and experience physical death, but rather they would receive “eternal life” and thus “never die” meaning—they would never be separated from God through the spiritual “THE death” that came through Adam the very day he rebelled against God. And the souls of the dead would be raised out of Abraham’s bosom or Hades and gathered or carried away by Christ and His angels into the Father’s presence to also inherit eternal life and “never die” (be subject to the curse and separation of Adamic death again). Both groups are no longer held captive or spiritually separated by “THE sin” and “THE death” that came through Adam – for Christ overcame them for both groups at His Parousia in AD 70.
Jesus made it very clear for those that seek to gain riches in this life and rule over and persecute the poor, that at the end of their life, they lose their soul to eternal torment and the righteous rule over them in the riches of having eternal life in God’s presence (cf. Mt. 16:26; Lk. 12:13-21; Lk. 16:19-31).
Dictators and their ambitions of ruling the world are temporary, they fall into the snares they plan for the righteous, only serve to accomplish God’s purposes, and they can only go as far as God allows them to (Dan. 4:34-35). Their ambitions come and go, but Christs’ rule through His Church will never cease. The Globalist elite must “Kiss the Son/King lest they perish” and thus have no hope of overcoming the curse of sin and death and the judgment that awaits them (Ps. 2:12). In short, Klaus Schwab and his World Economic Forum will never rule the world and all the money in the world cannot extend or buy the soul from the power of sin, death and what awaits in the afterlife. Only the blood of Christ and God-given and guarded faith is the holy exchange which “saves the soul” from sins committed against God and the power of death.
I see your attempts to start a war between Israel and the Muslim world to create a one world currency and government – controlled by you, but we will resist you and print our own debt free currency and the religious vacuum this war will create will only be used by God to refine and discipline His people and to draw weary sinners through the gates of the City to the Living God (Rev. 22:17). You have failed and you will continue to fail. Any successes you think you have is only being used of God as evidence to cast you into the Lake of Fire upon your death and to refine and discipline His Church throughout the world. God’s New Covenant Kingdom cannot be “shaken” and no amount of money or technology will give you eternal life. Only those who place their trust in Christ will “never die” (Jn. 8:51) and thus will never be separated from Him. “If you do not believe that I AM [“he” is not in the original], you will indeed die in your sins” (Jn. 8:24).
In Christ’s Righteousness Alone,
 Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. 9, (Grand Rapids; Eerdmans, 1975), 344
 David Green, From Babylon to Babylon, preteristcosmos.com
 Anthony A Hoekema, THE BIBLE AND THE FUTURE, (Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, MI: 1979), 126
 R.C. Sproul, The Last Days According To Jesus (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998), 108-109
 DeMar, Last Days Madness, Ibid., (1999 edition), 393, emphasis MJS
 John Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ, (Chicago, Moody, 1966), 35
 Thomas Ice, Tim LaHaye, Ibid., 103.
 G.K. Beale, THE NEW INTERNATIONAL GREEK TESTAMENT COMMENTARY NIGT, The Book of
Revelation, (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdman’s Publishing Company, 1999), 182
 David Chilton, Days of Vengeance, (Fort Worth, TX: Dominion Press, 1987), 412
 Michael S. Heiser, THE UNSEEN REALM Recovering the Supernatural worldview of the Bible, (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2015) 371
 Ibid., 373
 James B. Jordan, The Battle of Gog and Magog, http://www.biblicalhorizons.com/biblicalhorizons/no-2-the-battle-of-gog-and-magog/
 Gary DeMar, IDENTIFYING THE GOG-MAGOG ALLIANCE WHY THE END OF THE WORLD IS NOT IN YOUR FUTURE, (Powder Springs, GA, American Vision Press, 2008).
 William Hendriksen, More Than Conquerors, (Grand Rapids, MI, Baker Book House, 7th reprint 1990), 193.
 James Russell, The Parousia, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, third printing, 1990), 105
 Keith A. Mathison, From Age to Age: The Unfolding of Biblical Eschatology, (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2009), 459
 Milton S. Terry, A Study of the Most Notable Revelations of God and of Christ (Grand Rapids, MI:
Baker Book House, 1988), 246-247